政治思想(用語集)

<目次>

■1.藤井厳喜アカデミー【国民の為の政治学】の紹介


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■2.このページの目的

政治思想を考えるに当たっては、まず信頼の置ける用語集が必要である。
しかし、政治思想の分野は歴史分野以上に反日左翼学者が跋扈しており、既存の用語集からの参照は役に立たない。
(※ソ連が日本共産党に与えた32年テーゼに基づく「天皇制ファシズム論」を戦後一貫して唱え続けた皇室廃止論者:丸山眞男を未だに日本の代表的政治思想家として絶賛するような学者が大半を占める)
但しこの分野の救いは、最先端を行く英語圏の思想状況が比較的健全であるために、その輸入物に過ぎない日本の政治思想も原典を勝手に歪曲できないことである。
(※健全な著作は、岩波書店などの大手が出版を嫌がるため、マイナーな書店から出版されるなど入手困難あるいは絶品により入手不可となっているケースが多いので注意)
以下の用語集は、英語圏の辞典類(EB=Encyclopedia Britannica をメイン参照し wikipedia英語版をリンク)からの引用である。時期を見て和訳を試みる予定であるので、ご容赦願いたい。

■3.政治思想を理解する為の様々な概念

※各概念についての詳しい内実の説明が必要(今後記入予定)

■4.政治的スタンス(立ち位置)

◆政治的スタンス五分類 (内枠)
進歩重視 伝統重視
親・全体主義
(閉ざされた社会)
I 左翼
(共産主義、社会主義、リベラル左派)
⇔親和性高い⇔
(左/右しばしば転向)
V 右翼
(国民社会主義 ※1 、ナショナリズム)
反・白人/反・英米的
親アジア傾向、独裁制
‡非常に対立的 II 中間(便宜主義) ‡反・左翼で一致だが潜在的には対立 モボクラシー(衆愚制)
親・自由主義
(開かれた社会)
III 真正リベラル
本来のリベラル=リベラル右派)
⇔親和性高い⇔
(伝統に根ざした自由)
IV 真正保守
伝統保守
親・文明/親・英米的
デモクラシー(民主制)


◆政治的スタンス八分類 (外枠)             極右と極左は隣接 「ナチスとコチスは兄弟」
Political Stance Ultra-Left Left-Winger Liberal Centrist Neo-Liberal Conservative Right-Winger Ultra-Right
政治的
立ち位置
極左
(急進・過激派)
左翼
(革新)
リベラル左派
(中道左派・進歩派)
中間
(オポチュニズム)
リベラル右派
(新自由主義)
保守
(伝統保守)
右翼
(民族主義)
極右
(急進・過激派)
政治制度 一党独裁
(全体主義)
指導政党制
(準全体主義)
多党制・政権交代を前提
(純度の高い議会制デモクラシー = 自由民主制 liberal democracy) ※2
指導政党制
(準全体主義・権威主義)
一党独裁
(全体主義)
革命(Revolution)断行 革命・クーデターによる政体変更を否認 維新(Restoration)断行 クーデター断行
経済制度 共産主義 社会主義 資本主義 国民社会主義 ※1
経済政策 国家管理 高負担・高福祉 やや高負担・高福祉 功利主義・無定見 最小限の介入 中負担・中福祉 高負担・高福祉 国家管理
外交政策 親大陸(反英米) 親英米(反大陸) 反英米・反大陸
日本の事例 社民党(旧社会党) 自民党
日本共産党 民進党 維新政党新風
生活の党 公明党 おおさか維新の会 日本のこころを大切にする党
海外の事例 米・露 ソ連共産党(現:ロシア共産党) 民主党(米) 共和党(米) 統一ロシア(プーチンの与党) 自由民主党(露)
英国   労働党(英) 自由民主党(英) 保守党(英)
ドイツ 左翼党(旧東独社会主義統一党) 社会民主党(独) 自由民主党(独) キリスト教民主同盟・社会同盟(独) ドイツのための選択肢 ナチス党(消滅)
中・台 中国共産党(支) 民主進歩党(台) 中国国民党(華・台)  
国内メディアの
立ち位置
赤旗
(共産党支持)
朝日・毎日・中日・NHK
(民主・社民支持)
読売・日経
(大連立・中道志向)
産経
(自民支持)
チャンネル桜
(保守派支持)
読売 は「保守」ではなく「便宜主義」
産経 も「保守」ではなく「中道右派」
※政治現象を読み解くために…上の図は頭に入れて置こう⇒上図の詳しい説明は 政治の基礎知識 参照                             ※意見はこちらへ⇒ 政治的スタンス分析
※1国民社会主義 … 「国民」を神聖視した戦後はナチスと結びついた national socialism を「 国家社会主義 」とワザと誤訳してきたが、戦前の刊行物は「国民社会主義」と正しく訳しており最近の高校教科書の記述も語義どおり正しく翻訳するようになってきた(例:2006年検定合格の山川世界史教科書:「国民(国家)社会主義」と表記)。
※2自由民主制 … 「国民」を神聖視したのと同様に「デモクラシー」を「民主主義」とワザと誤訳して神聖視した戦後は liberal democracy をも「 自由民主主義 」とワザと誤訳してきた。⇒詳しくは デモクラシーの真実 参照。しかし厳密に学問的な政治学の著作は democracy を「民主主義」ではなく、ちゃんと「民主制」「民主政体」「民主政治」「衆民制」などと表記している。

■5.Political Philosophy:政治思想(用語集)

以下は、EB = Encyclopedia Britannica (ブリタニカ百科事典)より引用。

Democracy :デモクラシー、民主制、民主政体、民主政治
Form of government in which supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodic free elections. In a direct democracy, the public participates in government directly (as in soe ancient Greek City-States, some New England Town Meetings, and some Cantons in modern Switzerland). Most democracies today are representative. The concept of representative democracy arose largely from ideas and institutions that developed during European Middle Ages and the Enlightenment and in the American and Friench Revolutions. Democracy has come to imply universal suffrage, competiton for office, freedom of speech and the press, and the rule of law. See also Republic. EB
⇒ デモクラシーの真実 に翻訳済み

Conservatism :保守主義
Political attitude or ideology denoting a preference for institutions and practices that have evolved historically and are thus manifestations of continuity and stability.
It was first expressed in the modern era through the works of Edmund Burke in reaction to the French Revolution, which Burke believed tarnished its ideals through its excesses. Conservatives believe that the implementation of change should be minimal and gradual; they appreciate history and are more realistic than idealistic. Well-known conservative parties include the British Conservative Party, the German Christian Democratic Union, the U.S. Republican Party, and the Japanese Liberal-Democratic Party. See also Christian Democracy; liberalism.
EB
⇒ 保守主義とは何か に翻訳済み

イギリスの政治学者アンソニー・クィントンは 保守主義の原理 (風餐記blog参照)を以下の3点と指摘している。
伝統主義の原理 確立された慣習や制度に対する愛着・尊敬。歴史的な進化の所産である社会秩序は共同社会に蓄積された実際的知恵の結晶であり共同の成果であって保守主義者は急激で向こう見ずな革命的変化を敵視する
有機体主義の原理 社会は一体として自然に成長するものであり、組織された生きた全体であって機械的な寄せ集めではない。社会を構成するのは裸の抽象的個人ではなく、社会的存在として相互に関わり合い歴史的に受け継がれてきた慣習や制度に織り込まれて特有の社会性を持つに至った人間である。
政治的懐疑主義の原理 政治的な知恵つまり人間社会の諸問題を適切に処理するのに必要な類の知識は、孤高の思想家たちの思弁的理論の中ではなく、共同社会全体に歴史的に蓄積されてきた社会的経験の中に見出される
以上3つの原理を体現した代表的保守思想家が エドマンド・バーク である。 ~アンソニー・クィントン著『不完全の政治学-イギリス保守主義思想の二つの伝統』(1978)

Liberalism :自由主義、リベラリズム
Political and economic doctrine that emphasizes the rights and freedoms of the individual and the need to limit the powers of government.
Liberalism originated as a defensive reaction to the horrors of the European wars of religion of the 16th century (see Thirty Years’ War). Its basic ideas were given formal expression in works by Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, both of whom argued that the power of the sovereign is ultimately justified by the consent of the governed, given in a hypothetical social contract rather than by divine right (see divine kingship). In the economic realm, liberals in the 19th century urged the end of state interference in the economic life of society. Following Adam Smith, they argued that economic systems based on free markets are more efficient and generate more prosperity than those that are partly state-controlled. In response to the great inequalities of wealth and other social problems created by the Industrial Revolution in Europe and North America, liberals in the late 19th and early 20th centuries advocated limited state intervention in the market and the creation of state-funded social services, such as free public education and health insurance. In the U.S. the New Deal program undertaken by Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt typified modern liberalism in its vast expansion of the scope of governmental activities and its increased regulation of business. After World War II a further expansion of social welfare programs occurred in Britain, Scandinavia, and the U.S. Economic stagnation beginning in the late 1970s led to a revival of classical liberal positions favouring free markets, especially among political conservatives in Britain and the U.S. Contemporary liberalism remains committed to social reform, including reducing inequality and expanding individual rights. See also conservatism; individualism.
EB
⇒ リベラリズムの真実 に翻訳済み

EBによる定義は、かなり内容不明瞭であるが、まとめると「リベラリズム」という言葉は、次の4つの段階あるいは種類・区分をもってその意味内容を拡張ないし変化させてきた。
リベラリズムの段階・種類・区分 時期 意味内容
<1> 古典的リベラリズム(classical liberalism) 16世紀~19世紀 ①個人の権利・自由の確保、②政府権力の制限、③自由市場を選好…消極国家(夜警国家)
<2> ニュー・リベラリズム(new liberalism) 19世紀末~20世紀 経済的不平等・社会問題を緩和するため市場への政府介入を容認→次第に積極的介入へ(積極国家・福祉国家・管理された資本主義)
社会主義に接近しているので社会自由主義(social liberalism)と呼ばれ、自由社会主義(liberal socialism)とも呼ばれた。
<3> 再興リベラリズム(neo-liberalism) 1970年代~ スタグフレーション解決のため自由市場を再度選好。
<2>を個人主義から集産主義への妥協と批判し、個人の自由を取り戻すことを重視
<4> 現代リベラリズム(contemorary liberalism) 現代 ①不平等の緩和、②個人の権利の拡張、を含む社会改革を志向
1970年代以降にJ.ロールズ『正義論』を中心にアメリカで始まったリベラリズムの基礎的原理の定式化を目指す思想潮流で、①ロールズ的な平等主義的・契約論的正義論を「(狭義の)リベラリズム」と呼び、②それに対抗したR.ノージックなど個人の自由の至上性を説く流れを「リバタリアニズム(自由至上主義)」(但し契約論的な構成をとる所はロールズと共通)、③また個人ではなく共同体の価値の重要性を説くM.サンデルらの流れを「コミュニタリアニズム(共同体主義)」という。
補足説明 <2>ニュー・リベラリズム(new liberalism)と<4>再興リベラリズム(neo-liberalism)は共に「新自由主義」と訳されるので注意。
もともと<1>古典的リベラリズムに対して修正を加えた新しいリベラリズム、という意味で、<2>ニュー・リベラリズム(訳すと「新自由主義」)が生まれたのだが、世界恐慌から第二次世界大戦の前後の時期に、経済政策においてケインズ主義が西側各国に大々的に採用された結果、<1>に代わって<2>がリベラリズムの代表的内容と見なされるようになり、<2>からnewの頭文字が落ちて、単に「リベラリズム」というと<2>ニュー・リベラリズムを指すようになった。
ところが、1970年代に入るとインフレが昂進してケインズ主義に基づく経済政策が不況脱出の方途として効かなくなってしまい、市場の自律調整機能を重視する<1>の理念の復興を唱える<3>ネオ(=再興)・リベラリズムに基づく政策が1980年前後からイギリス・アメリカで採用されるようになった。そのため今度は、<3>を「新自由主義」と訳すようになった。
※上の「政治的スタンス(立ち位置)8分類」の図で、
リベラル右派 としているのが <4>再興リベラリズム
リベラル左派 としているのが <2>ニュー・リベラリズム ないし <4>現代リベラリズム
である。

Individualism :個人主義
Political and social philosophy that emphasizes individual freedom. Modern individualism emerged in Britain with the ideas of Adam Smith and Jeremy Bentham, and the concept was described by Alexis de Tocqueville as fundamental to the American temper. Individualism emcompasses a value system, a theory of human nature, and a belief in certain political, economic, social, and religious arrangements. According to the individualist, all values are human-centred, the individual is of supreme importance, and all individuals are morally equal. Individualism places great value on self-reliance, on privacy, and on mutual respect. Negatively, it embraces opposition to authority and to all manner of controls over the individual, especially when exercised by the state. As a theory of human nature, individualism holds that the interests of the normal adult are best served by allowing him maximu freedom and responsibility for choosing his objectives and the means for obtaining them. The institutional embodiment of individualism follows from these principles. All individualists believe that government should keep its interference in the lives of individuals at a minimum, confining itself largely to maintaining law and order, preventing individuals from interfering with others, and enforcing agreements (contracts) voluntarily arrived at. Individualism also implies a property system according to which each person or family enjoys the maximum of opportunity to acquire property and to manage and dispose of it as he or they see fit. Althougheconomic individualism and political individualism in the form of democracy advanced together for a while, in the course of the 19th century they eventually proved incompatible, as newly enfranchised voters came to demand governmental intervention in the economic process. Individualistic ideas lost ground in the later 19th and early 20th century with the rise of large-scale social organization and the emergence of political theories opposed to individualism, particularly Communism and Fascism. They reemerged in the latter half of he 20th century with the defeat of fascism, the fall of communism in the Soviet Union and eastern Europe, and the worldwide spread of represenative democracy. See also Libertarianism. EB
⇒  個人主義と集産主義  に翻訳済み

Collectivism :集産主義、集団主義
any of several types of social organization in which the individual is seen as being subordinate to a social collectivity such as a state, a nation, a race, or a social class. Collectivism may be contrasted with individualism, in which the rights and interests of the individual are emphasized.
The earliest modern, influential expression of collectivist ideas in the West is in Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s Du contrat social, of 1762 (see social contract), in which it is argued that the individual finds his true being and freedom only in submission to the “general will” of the community. In the early 19th century the German philosopher G.W.F. Hegel argued that the individual realizes his true being and freedom only in unqualified submission to the laws and institutions of the nation-state, which to Hegel was the highest embodiment of social morality. Karl Marx later provided the most succinct statement of the collectivist view of the primacy of social interaction in the preface to his Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: “It is not men’s consciousness,” he wrote, “which determines their being, but their social being which determines their consciousness.”
Collectivism has found varying degrees of expression in the 20th century in such movements as socialism, communism, and fascism. The least collectivist of these is social democracy, which seeks to reduce the inequities of unrestrained capitalism by government regulation, redistribution of income, and varying degrees of planning and public ownership. In communist systems collectivism is carried to its furthest extreme, with a minimum of private ownership and a maximum of planned economy.
EB
⇒  個人主義と集産主義  に翻訳済み

Nationalism :ナショナリズム
Loyalty and devotion to one's Nation or country, especially as above loyalty to other groups or to individual interests. Before the era of the nation-state, the primary allegiance of most people was to their immediate locality or religious group. The rise of large, centralized states weakened local authority, and society's increasing secularization weakened loyalty to religious groups, though shared religion - along eith common ethnicity, political heritage, and history - is one of the factors that draws people together in nationalist movements. Early nationalist movements in 18th- and early 19th-century Europe were liberal and internationalist, but they gradually became more conservative and parochial. Nationalism is considered a major contributing cause of World War Ⅰ, World War Ⅱ, and many other wars of the modern era. In Africa and Asia in the 20th century, nationalist movements often arose in opposition to Colonialism. After the fall of the Soviet Union, powerful nationalist sentiments in eastern Europe and the former Soviet republics contributed to ethnic conflicts, such as those in the territories of the former Yugoslavia. EB
⇒ ナショナリズムとは何か に翻訳済み

Communitarianism :共同体主義、コミュニタリアニズム
Political and social philosophy that emphasizes the importance of community in the functioning of political life, in the analysis and evaluation of political institutions, and in understanding human identity and well-being. It was developed in the 1980s and ’90s in explicit opposition to the theoretical liberalism of thinkers such as John Rawls. According to communitarians, liberalism relies on a conception of the individual that is unrealistically atomistic and abstract; it also places too much importance on individual values such as freedom and autonomy. Its chief representatives include Amitai Etzioni, Michael Sandel, and Charles Taylor. See also collectivism. EB
⇒ 中間派について に翻訳済み

Libertarianism :自由至上主義、リバタリアニズム
Political philosophy that stresses personal liberty.
Libertarians believe that individuals should have complete freedom of action, provided their actions do not infringe on the freedom of others. Libertarianism’s distrust of government is rooted in 19th-century anarchism. Typical libertarians oppose not only the income tax and other government impositions but also programs seen by many as beneficial, such as social security and the postal service. In the U.S. their views often crosscut traditional party boundaries (e.g., libertarians oppose gun control, as do most Republicans, but support the legalization of prohibited drugs, as do some liberal Democrats). Among the thinkers embraced by libertarians are Henry David Thoreau and Ayn Rand
EB
⇒ 中間派について に翻訳済み

Liberal Democracy :リベラル・デモクラシー、自由民主制   ※EBに項目なしのため、英語版wikipediaより引用
Liberal democracy (bourgeois democracy or constitutional democracy) is a common form of representative democracy. According to the principles of liberal democracy, the elections should be free and fair, and the political process should be competitive. Political pluralism is usually defined as the presence of multiple and distinct political parties.
A liberal democracy may take various constitutional forms: it may be a federal republic, as the United States, Brazil, India or Germany, or a constitutional monarchy, such as the United Kingdom, Japan, Canada or Spain. It may have a presidential system (United States, Brazil), a parliamentary system (Westminster system, UK and Commonwealth countries), or a hybrid, semi-presidential system (France, Russia).
]

Totalitarianism :全体主義
Form of government that subordinates all aspects of its citizens' lives to the authority of the state, with a single charismatic leader as the ultimate authority. The term was coined in the early 1920s by BENITO MUSSOLINI, but totalitarianism has existed throughout history throughtout the world (e.g., QIN DYNASTY China). It is distinguished from DICTATORSHIP and AUTHORITARIANISM by its supplanting of all political institutions and all old legal and socail traditions with new ones to meet the state's needs, which are usually highly focuased. Large-scale, organized violence may be legitimized. The police operate without the constraint of laws and regulations. Where pursuit of the state's goal is the only ideological foundation for such a government, achievement of the goal can never be acknowledged. HANNAH ARENDT's Origins of Totalitarianism (1951) is the standard work on the subject. EB

Authoritarianism :権威主義
principle of blind submission to authority, as opposed to individual freedom of thought and action. In government, authoritarianism denotes any political system that concentrates power in the hands of a leader or a small elite that is not constitutionally responsible to the body of the people. Authoritarian leaders often exercise power arbitrarily and without regard to existing bodies of law, and they usually cannot be replaced by citizens choosing freely among various competitors in elections. The freedom to create opposition political parties or other alternative political groupings with which to compete for power with the ruling group is either limited or nonexistent in authoritarian regimes.
Authoritarianism thus stands in fundamental contrast to democracy. It also differs from totalitarianism, however, since authoritarian governments usually have no highly developed guiding ideology, tolerate some pluralism in social organization, lack the power to mobilize the entire population in pursuit of national goals, and exercise that power within relatively predictable limits. Examples of authoritarian regimes, according to some scholars, include the pro-Western military dictatorships that existed in Latin America and elsewhere in the second half of the 20th century.
EB

Socialism :社会主義
System of social organization in which private property and the distribution of income are subject to social control; also, the political movements aimed at putting that system into practice.
Because “social control” may be interpreted in widely diverging ways, socialism ranges from statist to libertarian, from Marxist to liberal. The term was first used to describe the doctrines of Charles Fourier, Henri de Saint-Simon, and Robert Owen, who emphasized noncoercive communities of people working noncompetitively for the spiritual and physical well-being of all (see utopian socialism). Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, seeing socialism as a transition state between capitalism and communism, appropriated what they found useful in socialist movements to develop their “scientific socialism.” In the 20th century, the Soviet Union was the principal model of strictly centralized socialism, while Sweden and Denmark were well-known for their noncommunist socialism. See also collectivism, communitarianism, social democracy.
EB
⇒ 左派・左翼とは何か に翻訳済み

Communism :共産主義
the political and economic doctrine that aims to replace private property and a profit-based economy with public ownership and communal control of at least the major means of production (e.g., mines, mills, and factories) and the natural resources of a society. Communism is thus a form of socialism—a higher and more advanced form, according to its advocates. Exactly how communism differs from socialism has long been a matter of debate, but the distinction rests largely on the communists’ adherence to the revolutionary socialism of Karl Marx.
Like most writers of the 19th century, Marx tended to use the terms communism and socialism interchangeably. In his Critique of the Gotha Programme (1875), however, Marx identified two phases of communism that would follow the predicted overthrow of capitalism: the first would be a transitional system in which the working class would control the government and economy yet still find it necessary to pay people according to how long, hard, or well they worked; the second would be fully realized communism—a society without class divisions or government, in which the production and distribution of goods would be based upon the principle “From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs.” Marx’s followers, especially the Russian revolutionary Vladimir Ilich Lenin, took up this distinction.
In State and Revolution (1917), Lenin asserted that socialism corresponds to Marx’s first phase of communist society and communism proper to the second. Lenin and the Bolshevik wing of the Russian Social-Democratic Workers’ Party reinforced this distinction in 1918, the year after they seized power in Russia, by taking the name All-Russian Communist Party. Since then, communism has been largely, if not exclusively, identified with the form of political and economic organization developed in the Soviet Union and adopted subsequently in the People’s Republic of China and other countries ruled by communist parties.
For much of the 20th century, in fact, about one-third of the world’s population lived under communist regimes. These regimes were characterized by the rule of a single party that tolerated no opposition and little dissent. In place of a capitalist economy, in which individuals compete for profits, moreover, party leaders established a command economy in which the state controlled property and its bureaucrats determined wages, prices, and production goals. The inefficiency of these economies played a large part in the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, and the remaining communist countries (excepting North Korea) are now allowing greater economic competition while holding fast to one-party rule. Whether they will succeed in this endeavour remains to be seen. Succeed or fail, however, communism is clearly not the world-shaking force it was in the 20th century.
EB
⇒ 左派・左翼とは何か に翻訳済み

Social Democracy :社会民主主義
Political ideology that advocates a peaceful, evolutionary transition of society from CAPITALISM to SOCIALISM, using established political processes. It rejects MARXISM's advocacy of social revolution. Social democracy began as a political movement in Germany in the 1870's. EDUARD BERNSTEIN argued (1899) that capitalism was overcoming many of the weaknesses KARL MARX had seen in it (including unemployment and overproduction) and that universal suffrage would lead peacefully to a socialist government. After 1945, social-democratic governments came to power in West Germany (see SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY), Sweden, and Britain (under the LABOUR PARTY). Social-democratic thought gradually came to regard state regulation (without state ownership) as sufficient to ensure economic growth and a fair distribution of income. EB
⇒ 左派・左翼とは何か に翻訳済み

National Socialism :国民(国家)社会主義
totalitarian movement led by Adolf Hitler as head of the Nazi Party in Germany. In its intense nationalism, mass appeal, and dictatorial rule, National Socialism shared many elements with Italian fascism. However, Nazism was far more extreme both in its ideas and in its practice. In almost every respect it was an anti-intellectual and atheoretical movement, emphasizing the will of the charismatic dictator as the sole source of inspiration of a people and a nation, as well as a vision of annihilation of all enemies of the Aryan Volk as the one and only goal of Nazi policy. EB
⇒ 右派・右翼とは何か に翻訳済み

Fascism :ファシズム
Philosophy of government that stresses the primacy and glory of the state, unquestioning obedience to its leader, subordination of the individual will to the state’s authority, and harsh suppression of dissent.
Martial virtues are celebrated, while liberal and democratic values are disparaged. Fascism arose during the 1920s and ’30s partly out of fear of the rising power of the working classes; it differed from contemporary communism (as practiced under Joseph Stalin) by its protection of business and landowning elites and its preservation of class systems. The leaders of the fascist governments of Italy (1922–43), Germany (1933–45), and Spain (1939–75)—Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, and Francisco Franco—were portrayed to their publics as embodiments of the strength and resolve necessary to rescue their nations from political and economic chaos. Japanese fascists (1936–45) fostered belief in the uniqueness of the Japanese spirit and taught subordination to the state and personal sacrifice. See also totalitarianism; neofascism.
EB
⇒ 右派・右翼とは何か に翻訳済み

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  • コメント欄を追加 -- 名無しさん (2014-04-23 22:16:02)

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